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Green peas
Green peas

Green Peas are Our Food of the Week

This week we celebrate green peas, a favorite spring vegetable now in the peak of its season. It is the time when they have the best flavor and are usually the least expensive.. Green peas are a great addition to your menu because in addition to their concentration of vitamins and minerals, they also provide the carotenoid phytonutrients, lutein and zeaxanthin, which are known to promote vision and eye health.

What's New and Beneficial about Green Peas

  • We don't usually think about green peas as an exotic food in terms of nutrient composition—but we should. Because of their sweet taste and starchy texture, we know that green peas must contain some sugar and starch (and they do). But they also contain a unique assortment of health-protective phytonutrients. One of these phytonutrients—a polyphenol called coumestrol--has recently come to the forefront of research with respect to stomach cancer protection. A Mexico City-based study has shown that daily consumption of green peas along with other legumes lowers risk of stomach cancer (gastric cancer), especially when daily coumestrol intake from these legumes is approximately 2 milligrams or higher. Since one cup of green peas contains at least 10 milligrams of coumestrol, it's not difficult for us to obtain this remarkable health benefit.
  • The unique phytonutrients in green peas also provide us with key antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits. Included in these phytonutrients are some recently-discovered green pea phytonutrients called saponins. Due to their almost exclusive appearance in peas, these phytonutrients actually contain the scientific word for peas (Pisum) in their names: pisumsaponins I and II, and pisomosides A and B. When coupled with other phytonutrients in green peas—including phenolic acids like ferulic and caffeic acid, and flavanols like catechin and epicatechin—the combined impact on our health may be far-reaching. For example, some researchers have now speculated that the association between green pea and legume intake and lowered risk of type 2 diabetes may be connected not only with the relatively low glycemic index of green peas (about 45-50) and their strong fiber and protein content, but also with this unusual combination of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytonutrients.
  • Green peas stand out as an environmentally friendly food. Agricultural research has shown that pea crops can provide the soil with important benefits. First, peas belong to a category of crops called "nitrogen fixing" crops. With the help of bacteria in the soil, peas and other pulse crops are able to take nitrogen gas from the air and convert it into more complex and usable forms. This process increases nitrogen available in the soil without the need for added fertilizer. Peas also have a relatively shallow root system which can help prevent erosion of the soil, and once the peas have been picked, the plant remainders tend to break down relatively easily for soil replenishment. Finally, rotation of peas with other crops has been shown to lower the risk of pest problems. These environmentally friendly aspects of pea production add to their desirability as a regular part of our diet.
  • Even though green peas are an extremely low-fat food (with approximately one-third gram of total fat per cup) the type of fat and fat-soluble nutrients they contain is impressive. Recent research has shown that green peas are a reliable source of omega-3 fats in the form of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). In one cup of green peas, you can expect to find about 30 milligrams of ALA. About 130 milligrams of the essential omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid, can also be found in a cup of green peas. This very small but high-quality fat content of green peas helps provide us with important fat-soluble nutrients from this legume, including sizable amounts of beta-carotene and small but valuable amounts of vitamin E.

WHFoods Recommendations

Many public health organizations—including the American Diabetes Association, the American Heart Association, and the American Cancer Society—recommend legumes as a key food group for preventing disease and optimizing health. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans developed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommends 3 cups of legumes per week (based on a daily intake of approximately 2,000 calories). Because 1 serving of legumes was defined as 1/2 cup (cooked), the Dietary Guidelines for Americans come very close to recommending of 1/2 cup of cooked legumes on a daily basis. Based on our own research review, we believe that 3 cups of legumes per week is a very reasonable goal for support of good health. However, we also believe that optimal health benefits from legumes may require consumption of legumes in greater amounts. These greater amounts are based on studies in which legumes have been consumed at least 4 days per week and in amounts falling into a 1-2 cup range per day. These studies suggest a higher optimal health benefit level than the 2005 Dietary Guidelines: instead of 3 cups of weekly legumes, 4-8 cups would become the goal range. Remember that any amount of legumes is going to make a helpful addition to your diet. And whatever weekly level of legumes you decide to target, we definitely recommend inclusion of green peas among your legume choices.

Green Peas, cooked
1.00 cup
(137.75 grams)
Calories: 116
GI: low

NutrientDRI/DV




 fiber30%

 copper27%



 folate22%




 protein15%

 zinc15%



 iron12%


 choline10%


This chart graphically details the %DV that a serving of Green peas provides for each of the nutrients of which it is a good, very good, or excellent source according to our Food Rating System. Additional information about the amount of these nutrients provided by Green peas can be found in the Food Rating System Chart. A link that takes you to the In-Depth Nutritional Profile for Green peas, featuring information over 80 nutrients, can be found under the Food Rating System Chart.

Health Benefits

Given their exceptionally strong nutrient composition, we've been surprised at the relatively small amount of research specifically focused on green peas as a health-supporting food. Green peas have been largely overlooked in research studies on legumes, which have tended to concentrate only on beans. In studies where the health benefits of green peas have been directly examined, it's usually been in their dried versus fresh form. These research trends are ones that we would really like to see reversed! Due to the lack of wide-scale health research on green peas, many of the connections that we would expect to see need further research substantiation. Despite the lack of studies directly linking green pea intake to improved health, we believe that the outstanding nutrient composition of green peas will eventually be shown to have far-reaching health benefits, extending well beyond the ones presented in this Health Benefits section.

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Benefits of Green Peas

If you have traditionally thought about green peas as a "starchy vegetable" that cannot provide you with very much in the way of phytonutrients or body systems support, it's time that you change your thinking. Green peas are loaded with antioxidants and anti-inflammatory nutrients, and these health-supportive nutrients are provided in a wide range of nutrient categories. For example, in the flavonoid category, green peas provide us with the antioxidants catechin and epicatechin. In the carotenoid category, they offer alpha-carotene and beta-carotene. Their phenolic acids include ferulic and caffeic acid. Their polyphenols include coumestrol. Pisumsaponins I and II and pisomosides A and B are anti-inflammatory phytonutrients found almost exclusively in peas. Antioxidant vitamins provided by green peas include vitamin C and vitamin E, and a good amount of the antioxidant mineral zinc is also found in this amazing food. Yet another key anti-inflammatory nutrient needs to be added to this list, and that nutrient is omega-3 fat. Recent research has shown that green peas are a reliable source of omega-3 fat in the form of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). In one cup of green peas, you can expect to find about 30 milligrams of ALA.

Ordinarily, we would expect this extraordinary list of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients to be associated with lower risk of most inflammatory diseases, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and arthritis. Although large-scale studies on green pea intake and these chronic health problems remain unavailable, researchers have already begun to suggest connections in this area, particularly with respect to type 2 diabetes. We know that chronic, unwanted inflammation and chronic, unwanted oxidative stress increase our risk of type 2 diabetes. We also know that intake of green peas is associated with lowered risk of type 2 diabetes, even though this association has traditionally been understood to involve the strong fiber and protein content of green peas. Researchers now believe that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients in greens peas play an equally important role in lowering our risk of this chronic health problem.

Green Peas' Support for Blood Sugar Regulation

As mentioned in the previous section, blood sugar regulation has been an area of special interest with respect to green peas and its fellow legumes. Few foods provide us with such substantial amounts of protein or fiber (about 8-10 grams per cup for each of these macronutrients) as green peas. These outstanding fiber and protein amounts directly regulate the pace at which we digest our food. By helping to regulate the pace of digestion, protein and fiber also help regulate the break down of starches into sugars and the general passage of carbs through out digestive tract. With better regulation of carbs, our blood sugar levels can stay steadier.

Recent research has greatly expanded our understanding of these health benefits. What we now know is that green peas and other pulses can help us lower our fasting blood sugar as well as our fasting insulin levels. Our long-term control of blood sugar (as measured by lab testing of glycosylated hemoblobin and fructosamine) is also improved by intake of green peas. When combined with an overall high-fiber diet, these benefits are increased. They are also increased when green peas are consumed as part of an overall diet that is low in glycemic index.

The outstanding antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrient composition of green peas are very likely to play a role in these blood sugar benefits. Regular consumption of antioxidant nutrients can help us prevent chronic, unwanted oxidative stress, while regular consumption of anti-inflammatory nutrients can help us prevent chronic, unwanted inflammation. Chronic inflammation and chronic oxidative stress are well-established risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Lowering our risk in these two areas is very likely to be one of the mechanisms involved with the diabetes-preventing benefits of green peas.

Green Peas' Heart Health Promotion

An area we expected to find well-documented health benefits from green peas is the area of cardiovascular disease. While we did not find specific research documentation in this area, we are confident that future research will confirm key health benefits from green peas in relationship to cardiovascular protection. Our reasoning here is simple. First, we know that strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory protection is needed for healthy functioning of our blood vessels. The formation of plaque along our blood vessel walls starts with chronic, excessive oxidative stress and inflammation. Few foods are better equipped to provide us with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients than green peas. Second, we know that intake of omega-3 fat lowers our risk of cardiovascular problems. Green peas are a reliable source of omega-3 fat in the form of alpha-linolenic acid, or ALA. One cup of green peas provides us with ALA in an amount of approximately 30 milligrams. Third, we know that high levels of homocysteine raise our risk of cardiovascular disease, and that ample amounts of B vitamins are required to help keep our homocysteine levels in check. Green peas provide us with very good amounts of vitamin B1 and folate, and good amounts of vitamins B2, B3, and B6. The critical cardioprotective B vitamin, choline, is also provided by green peas in amounts of approximately 40 per cup. In combination, these nutrient features of green peas point to a likely standout role for this food in protection of our cardiovascular health.

Green Peas' Protection Against Stomach Cancer

Excessive inflammation and oxidative stress are risk factors not only for the development of chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes, but also for the development of cancers. A recent research study has begun to examine the benefits of green peas with respect to one particular type of cancer—stomach cancer. Stomach cancer (also called gastric cancer) is a disease that occurs more commonly in persons who have very low intake of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients, including key nutrients called polyphenols. A recent study based in Mexico City has shown that daily consumption of green peas along with other legumes is associated with decreased risk of stomach cancer. In particular, decreased risk of stomach cancer in this study was associated with average daily intake of a polyphenol called coumestrol at a level of 2 milligrams or higher. Pulses (including green peas) were determined to be a key food contributor to coumestrol in this Mexico-based study. Since one cup of green peas contains at least 10 milligrams of coumestrol, green peas are very likely to provide some unique health benefits in this cancer-prevention area. Of course, coumestrol is not the only cancer-protective nutrient present in green peas! The wide variety of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory phytonutrients in green peas is very likely to play a primary role in the cancer-preventive benefits of this food.

Description

Legumes are plants that bear fruit in the form of pods enclosing the fleshy seeds we know as beans. Peas are one of the few members of the legume family that are commonly sold and cooked as fresh vegetables. Other members of the legume family, including lentils, chickpeas, and beans of all colors are most often sold in dried form. There are generally three types of peas that are commonly eaten: garden or green peas (Pisum sativum), snow peas (Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon) and snap peas (Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon ser. cv.). Garden peas have rounded pods that are usually slightly curved in shape with a smooth texture and vibrant green color. Inside of them are green rounded pea seeds that are sweet and starchy in taste. Snow peas are flatter than garden peas, and since they are not fully opaque, you can usually see the shadows of the flat peas seeds within. Snap peas, a cross between the garden and snow pea, have plump pods with a crisp, snappy texture. The pods of both snow peas and snap peas are edible, and both feature a slightly sweeter and cooler taste than the garden pea. Peas and other legumes belong to the plant family known as the Fabaceae, which is also commonly called the bean family or the pulse family. In fact, commercial production of peas is commonly placed within the category of pulse production, and like its fellow legumes, peas are often referred to as "pulses."

History

The modern-day garden pea is thought to have originated from the field pea that was native to central Asia and the Middle East. Because its cultivation dates back thousands and thousands of years, the green pea is widely recognized as one of the first food crops to be cultivated by humans. Peas were apparently consumed in dry form throughout much of their early history, and did not become widely popular as a fresh food until changes in cultivation techniques that took place in Europe in the 16th century. Peas are now grown throughout the world in nearly every climatic zone, and are widely consumed in both fresh and dried form.

While growing approximately 3 million tons of peas per year, Canada is currently the largest world producer and exporter of peas. France, China, Russia, and India are also large-scale producers of this legume. Despite being a large-scale producer of peas, India is also the world's largest importer of this food due to its great popularity in that country.

How to Select and Store

Only about 5% of the peas grown are sold fresh; the rest are either frozen or canned. When trying to decide between frozen and canned green peas, the following information may be helpful:

  • Frozen peas are better able to retain their color, texture, and flavor than canned peas. Recent research has confirmed that these "important sensory characteristics" of green peas are not affected by freezing over periods of 1-3 months.
  • Both canned and frozen peas may contain relatively high levels of sodium. Unless labeled as "low sodium" or "reduced sodium" or containing "50% less sodium" or something similar, you can expect to find 650-800 milligrams of sodium in one cup of canned green peas. Some of this sodium can be removed by thorough rinsing, and we definitely encourage you to do so. Reduced sodium canned peas will often bring the sodium content down to 250-300 milligrams of sodium. Even in this case, you can lower the sodium even further by thoroughly rinsing the peas. In the case of frozen green peas, it's not uncommon to find 300 milligrams of sodium in one cup of frozen green peas—approximately the same amount as found in reduced sodium canned peas. This relatively high sodium level in frozen peas results from green pea processing methods, not from the natural sodium content of the peas. When large batches of peas are prepared for freezing, producers separate out the older and starchier peas prior to freezing. A common method used to separate out the starchier peas is to immerse them in salty water. This process, called the salt brine process, allows the younger, more tender, and less starchy peas to float on top of the salt water, while letting the older, less tender, and starchier peas to sink to the bottom. Even though the younger and less starchy peas are rinsed with water after being separated out, they can still contain relatively high levels of sodium.
  • Neither frozen peas nor canned peas have an unlimited shelf life. In the case of frozen peas, it's not uncommon to see "use by" dates that indicate a 24-30 month shelf life. However, based on the overall research findings on nutrient content of frozen peas during storage, we recommend that you consume your frozen peas within 6-12 months of the packing date. (If no packing date is available, just make the "use by" date 50% sooner.)

Overall, we recommend the selection of frozen peas over canned peas and recognize the convenience of frozen over fresh. However, we also encourage you to consider fresh peas whenever possible, and to choose them according to the following guidelines.

When purchasing fresh garden peas, look for ones whose pods are firm, velvety and smooth. Their color should be a lively medium green. Those whose green color is especially light or dark, or those that are yellow, whitish or are speckled with gray, should be avoided. Additionally, do not choose pods that are puffy, water soaked or have mildew residue. The pods should contain peas of sufficient number and size that there is not much empty room in the pod. You can tell this by gently shaking the pod and noticing whether there is a slight rattling sound. All varieties of fresh peas should be displayed in a refrigerated case since heat will hasten the conversion of their sugar content into starch.

Unlike the rounded pods of garden peas, the pods of snow peas are flat. You should be able to see the shape of the peas through the non-opaque shiny pod. Choose smaller ones as they tend to be sweeter.

To test the quality of snap peas, snap one open and see whether it is crisp. They should be bright green in color, firm and plump.

Garden peas are generally available from spring through the beginning of winter. Snow peas can usually be found throughout the year in Asian markets and from spring through the beginning of winter in supermarkets. Snap peas are more limited in their availability. They are generally available from late spring through early summer.

At WHFoods, we encourage the purchase of certified organically grown foods, and green peas are no exception. Repeated research studies on organic foods as a group show that your likelihood of exposure to contaminants such as pesticides and heavy metals can be greatly reduced through the purchased of certified organic foods, including green peas. In many cases, you may be able to find a local organic grower who sells green peas but has not applied for formal organic certification either through the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) or through a state agency. (Examples of states offering state-certified organic foods include California, New York, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington.) However, if you are shopping in a large supermarket, your most reliable source of organically grown green peas is very likely to be green peas that display the USDA organic logo.

If you will not be using fresh peas on the day of purchase, which is the best way to enjoy them, you should refrigerate them as quickly as possible in order to preserve their sugar content, preventing it from turning into starch. Unwashed, unshelled peas stored in the refrigerator in a bag or unsealed container will keep for several days.

Here is some background on why we recommend refrigerating green peas. Whenever food is stored, four basic factors affect its nutrient composition:exposure to air, exposure to light, exposure to heat, and length of time in storage. Vitamin C, vitamin B6, and carotenoids are good examples of nutrients highly susceptible to heat, and for this reason, their loss from food is very likely to be slowed down through refrigeration.

Fresh peas can also be blanched for one or two minutes and then frozen. If you decide to blanch and freeze your green peas, we recommend a maximum storage period of 6-12 months.

Tips for Preparing and Cooking

Tips for Preparing Green Peas

Before you remove the peas from the pod, rinse them briefly under running water. To easily shell them, snap off the top and bottom of the pod and then gently pull off the "thread" that lines the seam of most peapods. For those that do not have "threads," carefully cut through the seam, making sure not to cut into the peas. Gently open the pods to remove the seeds, which do not need to be washed since they have been encased in the pod.

The classic way of cooking garden peas is to line a saucepan with several leaves of washed Boston or Bibb lettuce and then place the peas on the lettuce. You can then add fresh herbs and spices if you desire. Cover the peas with more lettuce leaves, add one or two tablespoons of water, and cover the pan. Cook the peas for about 15 to 20 minutes, after which they should be tender and flavorful.

Snow peas and snap peas can be eaten raw, although the cooking process will cause them to become sweeter. Either way, they should be rinsed beforehand. Healthy Sautéeing is one of the best ways to cook these types of peas.

The Nutrient-Rich Way of Cooking

Of all of the cooking methods we tried when cooking green peas, our favorite is Healthy Sauté. We think that this method provides green peas with the greatest flavor.

Healthy Sauté—similar to Quick Boiling and Quick Steaming, our other recommended cooking methods—follows three basic cooking guidelines that are generally associated in food science research with improved nutrient retention. These three guidelines are: (1) minimal necessary heat exposure; (2) minimal necessary cooking duration; (3) minimal necessary food surface contact with cooking liquid.

To Healthy Sauté green peas, heat 3 TBS of broth (vegetable or chicken) or water in a stainless steel skillet. Once bubbles begin to form add green peas, cover, and Healthy Sauté for 3 minutes. Transfer to a bowl and toss with our Mediterranean Dressing.

How to Enjoy

A Few Quick Serving Ideas

  • Add fresh peas to green salads.
  • Healthy Sauté snap peas with shiitake mushrooms.
  • Mix green peas with chicken, diced onions and almonds to make a delicious and colorful chicken salad.
  • Fresh pea pods are a great food to pack in a lunch box.

WHFoods Recipes That Feature Green Peas

If you'd like even more recipes and ways to prepare green peas the Nutrient-Rich Way, you may want to explore The World's Healthiest Foods book.

Nutritional Profile

While not always recognized as a food unique in phytonutrients, green peas are actually an outstanding phytonutrient source. Flavanols (including catechin and epicatechin), phenolic acids (including caffeic and ferulic acid), and carotenoids (including alpha- and beta-carotene) are among the phytonutrients provided by green peas. Even more unique to this food are its saponins, pisumsaponins I and II and pisomosides A and B. The polyphenol coumestrol is also provided in substantial amounts by this phytonutrient-rich food.

Green peas are a very good source of vitamin K, manganese, dietary fiber, vitamin B1, copper, vitamin C, phosphorus and folate. They are also a good source of vitamin B6, niacin, vitamin B2, molybdenum, zinc, protein, magnesium, iron, potassium and choline.

Introduction to Food Rating System Chart

In order to better help you identify foods that feature a high concentration of nutrients for the calories they contain, we created a Food Rating System. This system allows us to highlight the foods that are especially rich in particular nutrients. The following chart shows the nutrients for which this food is either an excellent, very good, or good source (below the chart you will find a table that explains these qualifications). If a nutrient is not listed in the chart, it does not necessarily mean that the food doesn't contain it. It simply means that the nutrient is not provided in a sufficient amount or concentration to meet our rating criteria. (To view this food's in-depth nutritional profile that includes values for dozens of nutrients - not just the ones rated as excellent, very good, or good - please use the link below the chart.) To read this chart accurately, you'll need to glance up in the top left corner where you will find the name of the food and the serving size we used to calculate the food's nutrient composition. This serving size will tell you how much of the food you need to eat to obtain the amount of nutrients found in the chart. Now, returning to the chart itself, you can look next to the nutrient name in order to find the nutrient amount it offers, the percent Daily Value (DV%) that this amount represents, the nutrient density that we calculated for this food and nutrient, and the rating we established in our rating system. For most of our nutrient ratings, we adopted the government standards for food labeling that are found in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's "Reference Values for Nutrition Labeling." Read more background information and details of our rating system.

Green Peas, cooked
1.00 cup
137.75 grams
Calories: 116
GI: low
NutrientAmountDRI/DV
(%)
Nutrient
Density
World's Healthiest
Foods Rating
vitamin K35.68 mcg406.2very good
manganese0.72 mg365.6very good
fiber7.58 g304.7very good
vitamin B10.36 mg304.7very good
copper0.24 mg274.1very good
vitamin C19.56 mg264.1very good
phosphorus161.17 mg233.6very good
folate86.78 mcg223.4very good
vitamin B60.30 mg182.7good
vitamin B32.78 mg172.7good
vitamin B20.21 mg162.5good
molybdenum6.89 mcg152.4good
zinc1.64 mg152.3good
protein7.38 g152.3good
magnesium53.72 mg132.1good
iron2.12 mg121.8good
potassium373.30 mg111.7good
choline40.91 mg101.5good
World's Healthiest
Foods Rating
Rule
excellent DRI/DV>=75% OR
Density>=7.6 AND DRI/DV>=10%
very good DRI/DV>=50% OR
Density>=3.4 AND DRI/DV>=5%
good DRI/DV>=25% OR
Density>=1.5 AND DRI/DV>=2.5%

In-Depth Nutritional Profile

In addition to the nutrients highlighted in our ratings chart, here is an in-depth nutritional profile for Green peas. This profile includes information on a full array of nutrients, including carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fiber, sodium, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids and more.

Green Peas, cooked
(Note: "--" indicates data unavailable)
1.00 cup
(137.75 g)
GI: low
BASIC MACRONUTRIENTS AND CALORIES
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Protein7.38 g15
Carbohydrates21.53 g10
Fat - total0.30 g--
Dietary Fiber7.58 g30
Calories115.716
MACRONUTRIENT AND CALORIE DETAIL
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Carbohydrate:
Starch-- g
Total Sugars8.17 g
Monosaccharides0.74 g
Fructose0.56 g
Glucose0.18 g
Galactose0.00 g
Disaccharides7.43 g
Lactose0.00 g
Maltose0.25 g
Sucrose7.18 g
Soluble Fiber2.07 g
Insoluble Fiber5.51 g
Other Carbohydrates5.79 g
Fat:
Monounsaturated Fat0.03 g
Polyunsaturated Fat0.14 g
Saturated Fat0.05 g
Trans Fat0.00 g
Calories from Fat2.73
Calories from Saturated Fat0.48
Calories from Trans Fat0.00
Cholesterol0.00 mg
Water107.27 g
MICRONUTRIENTS
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Vitamins
Water-Soluble Vitamins
B-Complex Vitamins
Vitamin B10.36 mg30
Vitamin B20.21 mg16
Vitamin B32.78 mg17
Vitamin B3 (Niacin Equivalents)3.63 mg
Vitamin B60.30 mg18
Vitamin B120.00 mcg0
Biotin0.55 mcg2
Choline40.91 mg10
Folate86.78 mcg22
Folate (DFE)86.78 mcg
Folate (food)86.78 mcg
Pantothenic Acid0.21 mg4
Vitamin C19.56 mg26
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin A (Retinoids and Carotenoids)
Vitamin A International Units (IU)1103.38 IU
Vitamin A mcg Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE)55.17 mcg (RAE)6
Vitamin A mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)110.34 mcg (RE)
Retinol mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)0.00 mcg (RE)
Carotenoid mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)110.34 mcg (RE)
Alpha-Carotene30.30 mcg
Beta-Carotene647.42 mcg
Beta-Carotene Equivalents662.58 mcg
Cryptoxanthin0.00 mcg
Lutein and Zeaxanthin3571.86 mcg
Lycopene0.00 mcg
Vitamin D
Vitamin D International Units (IU)0.00 IU0
Vitamin D mcg0.00 mcg
Vitamin E
Vitamin E mg Alpha-Tocopherol Equivalents (ATE)0.19 mg (ATE)1
Vitamin E International Units (IU)0.29 IU
Vitamin E mg0.19 mg
Vitamin K35.68 mcg40
Minerals
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Boron-- mcg
Calcium37.19 mg4
Chloride11.02 mg
Chromium0.69 mcg2
Copper0.24 mg27
Fluoride-- mg--
Iodine2.75 mcg2
Iron2.12 mg12
Magnesium53.72 mg13
Manganese0.72 mg36
Molybdenum6.89 mcg15
Phosphorus161.17 mg23
Potassium373.30 mg11
Selenium2.62 mcg5
Sodium4.13 mg0
Zinc1.64 mg15
INDIVIDUAL FATTY ACIDS
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Omega-3 Fatty Acids0.03 g1
Omega-6 Fatty Acids0.11 g
Monounsaturated Fats
14:1 Myristoleic0.00 g
15:1 Pentadecenoic0.00 g
16:1 Palmitol0.00 g
17:1 Heptadecenoic0.00 g
18:1 Oleic0.03 g
20:1 Eicosenoic0.00 g
22:1 Erucic0.00 g
24:1 Nervonic0.00 g
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
18:2 Linoleic0.11 g
18:2 Conjugated Linoleic (CLA)-- g
18:3 Linolenic0.03 g
18:4 Stearidonic-- g
20:3 Eicosatrienoic-- g
20:4 Arachidonic-- g
20:5 Eicosapentaenoic (EPA)-- g
22:5 Docosapentaenoic (DPA)-- g
22:6 Docosahexaenoic (DHA)-- g
Saturated Fatty Acids
4:0 Butyric0.00 g
6:0 Caproic0.00 g
8:0 Caprylic0.00 g
10:0 Capric0.00 g
12:0 Lauric0.00 g
14:0 Myristic0.00 g
15:0 Pentadecanoic0.00 g
16:0 Palmitic0.05 g
17:0 Margaric0.00 g
18:0 Stearic0.01 g
20:0 Arachidic0.00 g
22:0 Behenate0.00 g
24:0 Lignoceric0.00 g
INDIVIDUAL AMINO ACIDS
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Alanine0.33 g
Arginine0.58 g
Aspartic Acid0.67 g
Cysteine0.04 g
Glutamic Acid1.01 g
Glycine0.25 g
Histidine0.14 g
Isoleucine0.27 g
Leucine0.44 g
Lysine0.43 g
Methionine0.11 g
Phenylalanine0.27 g
Proline0.24 g
Serine0.25 g
Threonine0.28 g
Tryptophan0.05 g
Tyrosine0.15 g
Valine0.32 g
OTHER COMPONENTS
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Ash1.27 g
Organic Acids (Total)-- g
Acetic Acid-- g
Citric Acid-- g
Lactic Acid-- g
Malic Acid-- g
Taurine-- g
Sugar Alcohols (Total)-- g
Glycerol-- g
Inositol-- g
Mannitol-- g
Sorbitol-- g
Xylitol-- g
Artificial Sweeteners (Total)-- mg
Aspartame-- mg
Saccharin-- mg
Alcohol0.00 g
Caffeine0.00 mg

Note:

The nutrient profiles provided in this website are derived from The Food Processor, Version 10.12.0, ESHA Research, Salem, Oregon, USA. Among the 50,000+ food items in the master database and 163 nutritional components per item, specific nutrient values were frequently missing from any particular food item. We chose the designation "--" to represent those nutrients for which no value was included in this version of the database.

References

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  • Edelenbos M, Christensen LP and Grevsen K. HPLC determination of chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments in processed green pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L.). J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Oct;49(10):4768-74. 2001.
  • Hernandez-Ramirez R, Galvan-Portillo M, Ward M et al. Dietary intake of polyphenols, nitrate and nitrite and gastric cancer risk in Mexico City. Int J Cancer. 2009 September 15; 125(6): 1424-1430. 2009.
  • Ismail A, Tiong NW, Tan ST et al. Antioxidant properties of selected non-leafy vegetables. Nutrition and Food Science. Bradford: 2009. Vol. 39, Iss. 2; p. 176-180. 2009.
  • Jokanović MR, Jovićević D, Tepić AN et al. Suitability of some green pea (Pisum sativum L.) varieties for processing. Suitability of some green pea (Pisum sativum L.) varieties for processing. Acta Periodica Technologica 2006, 37: 13-20. 2006.
  • Lisiewska Z, Słupski J, Kmiecik W et al. Effect of pre-freezing and culinary treatment on the content of amino acids of green pea. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum 2008, 7(4): 5-14. 2008.
  • Moriyama M and Oba K. Comparative study on the vitamin C contents of the food legume seeds. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2008 Feb;54(1):1-6. 2008.
  • Murakami T, Kohno K, Matsuda H et al. Medicinal foodstuffs. XXII. Structures of oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, pisumsaponins I and II, and kaurane-type diterpene oligoglycosides, pisumosides A and B, from green peas, the immatu. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2001 Jan;49(1):73-7. 2001.
  • Rickman JC, Barrett DM and Bruhn CM. Nutritional comparison of fresh, frozen and canned fruits and vegetables. Part 1. Vitamins C and B and phenolic compounds. J Sci Food Agric 87:930-944 (2007). 2007.
  • Sievenpiper JL, Kendall CW, Esfahani A et al. Effect of non-oil-seed pulses on glycaemic control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled experimental trials in people with and without diabetes. Diabetologia. 2009 Aug;52(8):1479-95. 2009.
  • Trinidad TP, Mallillin AC, Loyola AS et al. The potential health benefits of legumes as a good source of dietary fibre. Br J Nutr. 2010 Feb;103(4):569-74. Epub 2009 Oct 14. 2010.
  • Xu BJ, Yuan SH and Chang SK. Comparative analyses of phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity, and color of cool season legumes and other selected food legumes. J Food Sci. 2007 Mar;72(2):S167-77. 2007.
  • Yoshida H, Tomiyama Y, Saiki M et al. Tocopherol Content and Fatty Acid Distribution of Peas (Pisum sativum L.). JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 2007, 84(11): 1031-1038. 2007.
  • Zhang D, Hendricks DG, Mahoney AW et al. Bioavailability of Iron in Green Peas, Spinach, Bran Cereal, and Cornmeal Fed to Anemic Rats. Journal of Food Science, 1985; 50(2): 426-428. 1985.

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