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Tofu
Tofu

What's New and Beneficial About Tofu

  • Even though soy foods in general are associated with decreased risk of cancer in several countries, a comprehensive analysis of 28 previously published studies on Chinese adults has now shown that intake of soy foods in the form of tofu (and soy miso) does a better job of reducing risk of at least one cancer type (stomach cancer) than intake than soy in general. A team of researchers at the School of Radiation Medicine and Public Health at Soochow University in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China arrived at this conclusion after statistical analysis of numerous studies conducted between 1998-2008. While we cannot be sure about the ability of tofu and soy miso to provide health benefits for U.S. adults in the same way that they provide health benefits for Chinese adults, we can be sure that there is something unique about tofu and miso among all varieties of soy foods, and that this uniqueness may extend to stomach cancer prevention under certain circumstances.
  • In the case of fermented tofu, we've recently learned that antioxidant and free radical-scavenging health benefits are directly related to the length of fermentation time. Tofus fermented for nine versus three days have recently been shown to provide up to double the free radical-scavenging activity. We suspect that there is no magic number with respect to fermentation time, and that a variety of factors were responsible for the increased free radical-scavenging activity of these tofus after nine days of fermentation. Nevertheless, this study underscores the potentially beneficial nutrient changes that can take place when a food is carefully fermented and when micro-organisms used in fermentation are provided with enough time to grow and transform the food's nutrient potential. In this particular study a variety of micro-organisms (fungi) were used to ferment the tofu, including Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus sojae, Aspergillus awamori, Actinomucor taiwanensis, and Rhizopus oligosporus.

    Tofu is a widely-enjoyed food made from soybeans, and it is a great example of how a simple food like soybeans can be woven into human food traditions in a way that is natural, inexpensive, and nourishing. Tofu is a surprisingly versatile form of soybeans that is made by curdling soymilk so that its proteins become coagulated and then pressed into a sliceable cake. Even though very little tofu sold in the U.S. has been fermented, it is also possible for tofu to be made not only through coagulation, but also through fermentation—i.e., through the addition of micro-organisms which can interact with the soy curds. (There are many health advantages to the fermentation of soy foods, and these advantages will be described in more detail throughout this food profile.)

    Tofu, firm
    4.00 oz
    (113.40 grams)
    Calories: 164
    GI: very low

    NutrientDRI/DV

     calcium77%


     copper48%


     protein36%



     iron17%


     zinc16%



    This chart graphically details the %DV that a serving of Tofu provides for each of the nutrients of which it is a good, very good, or excellent source according to our Food Rating System. Additional information about the amount of these nutrients provided by Tofu can be found in the Food Rating System Chart. A link that takes you to the In-Depth Nutritional Profile for Tofu, featuring information over 80 nutrients, can be found under the Food Rating System Chart.

    Health Benefits

    In the Health Benefits section of our Soybeansfood profile, we provide an in-depth look at many of the controversial issues surrounding soy foods and their role in health. (You may want to visit that section of our website to learn more about these issues.) One of the most important things to remember about tofu is its basic whole food nature. The vast majority of soy consumed in the U.S. comes from a highly processed form of soy. The soybeans we consume have usually been genetically engineered, cracked, dehulled, crushed, and subjected to solvent extraction to separate their oils from the rest of the bean. What's left behind after oil extraction (defatted soy flour) is then further processed into animal feed, or processed to produce a protein concentrate or a protein isolate. The isolate can be used as an ingredient in low-fat soymilk, and the concentrate can be further processed (extruded) to form a textured soy protein for use in meat analog products (like soy burgers). Tofu is produced with significantly less processing than most low-fat soymilks and soy burgers, it is a soy food that is much closer to a "whole foods" category than soy protein isolates and concentrates.

    While there is existing research that indicates the possibility of certain health risks from consumption of soy, we believe that a significant amount of these possible health risks involve consumption of soy in a highly processed form (like soy protein isolate or soy protein concentrate) rather than a whole food form. By contrast, we view tofu as a form of soy that is closer to soy in its whole food form.

    From a health benefits standpoint, there are also benefits to tofu that has been fermented. Fermentation increases the digestibility of soy (especially its proteins), nutrient absorption from soy (including absorption of phytonutrient isoflavones like genistein and daidzein), and the concentration of bioactive peptides (formed during the breakdown of soy proteins during fermentation).

    Overall Nutrient Benefits

    According to a recent research analysis of the U.S. population and dietary practices within this population, U.S. adults would increase their intake of folate, vitamin K, calcium, magnesium, iron and fiber if we replaced our meat and dairy intake with soy, including tofu. Replacing meat and dairy with tofu and other soy products would also lower our total cholesterol intake by about 125 milligrams per day and our saturated fat by about 2.4 grams per day. These nutritional changes, in turn, would lower our risk of several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases.

    Soy foods typically contain a wide variety of well-studied phytonutrients. In the case of fermented soy foods like tofu that has been fermented these phytonutrients can become more concentrated and more bioavailable as well. Below is a list of some key phytonutrients that can be found in tofu and other soy foods.

    • Flavonoids and Isoflavonoids
      • daidzen
      • genistein
      • malonylgenistin
      • malonyldaidzin
    • Phenolic Acids
      • Caffeic acid
      • Coumaric acid
      • Ferulic acid
      • Gallic acid
      • Sinapic acid
    • Phytoalexins
      • glyceollin I
      • glyceollin II
      • glyceollin III
    • Phytosterols
      • beta-sitosterol
      • beta-stigmasterol
      • campestrol
    • Proteins and Peptides
      • defensins
      • glycinin
      • conglycinin
      • lunacin
    • Saponins
      • soyasaponins (group A and group B)
      • soyasapogenols

      Before concluding this phytonutrient section, we think it's important to point out one nutrient-related aspect of soy processing. Phytates are substances found in soybeans (and many other foods) that can lessen the absorption of certain nutrients, especially minerals. Soy products in general (including products that are minimally processed) contain 1.4-3.0% phytates. Soy isolates (commonly used production of low-fat soy milk) usually contain a minimum of 2.89% phytates, and soy concentrates can contain up to 4.8-4.9% phytates. Forms of soy, like tofu, that are more whole food-based will do a better job of lowering your phytate exposure than highly processed forms of soy like soy protein concentrates or isolates.

      Cardiovascular Benefits of Tofu

      We've seen very few studies of soy and cardiovascular health that are specific to tofu. However, we do know that whole food soy products provide better cardiovascular support than dietary supplements containing isolated soy components (like purified isoflavones). We also know that fermented soy foods like fermented tofu have more bioactive peptides than non-fermented soy foods, including "regular" tofu. (Peptides are smaller breakdown parts of proteins.) In the case of fermented soy foods like tofu,, two key storage proteins—glycinin and conglycinin—are broken down by molds, yeasts, and bacteria into peptide fragments that have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and blood pressure-lowering properties. For example, some of the peptides found in fermented tofu inhibit angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) and are therefore classified as "ACE inhibitors." When this enzyme is inhibited, it is often easier for the cardiovascular system to regulate blood pressure. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of soy peptides found in fermented soy food like tofu can help protect the blood vessels from oxidative and inflammatory damage.

      Intake of soy foods (especially whole soy foods) has been associated with improved levels of blood fats in numerous research studies. However, even in the case of whole soy foods, we would not describe this improvement of blood fat levels as being "strong." A better word would be "moderate." The most consistent effect of soybean intake on blood fats has been a moderate lowering of LDL cholesterol. Some studies show other positive impacts on blood fats, like the lowering of triglycerides and total cholesterol or the raising of HDL cholesterol (the "good" cholesterol). However, these additional blood fat results have not been confirmed in all studies.

      Soyasaponins are soy phytonutrients that have been especially interesting to researchers with respect to their cardiovascular benefits. There is some evidence, mostly in animal studies, that soyasaponins can lessen the rate of lipid peroxidation in blood vessels, lessen absorption of cholesterol from the GI tract, and increase excretion of fecal bile acids. All of these events would be expected to contribute to a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Soyasaponins are provided in many forms of soy, but fermentation of soy has been shown to increase their concentration. Increased levels of soyasaponins in fermented soy foods like fermented tofu are likely to play a role in the better track record of fermented (versus non-fermented) soy foods in the area of cardiovascular benefits.

      Cancer Prevention Benefits

      The area of cancer prevention is a controversial area of health research on soybeans. Many studies provide us with evidence that supports the role of whole soy foods in a cancer-preventing diet. Genistein (an isoflavone phytonutrient in soy) is often a key focus in these cancer-prevention studies. This soy isoflavone can increase activity of a tumor suppressor protein called p53. When p53 becomes more active, it can help trigger programmed cell death (apoptosis) in cancer cells, and it also help trigger cell cycle arrest (helping stop ongoing cancer cell activity). Genistein has also been shown to block the activity of protein kinases in a way that can help slow tumor formation, especially in the case of breast and prostate cancer. Importantly, genistein is found in higher concentrations in fermented soy foods like fermented tofu (compared to non-fermented soy foods like soymilk, isolate soy protein, concentrated soy protein, textured soy protein—also known as TVP—and non-fermented tofu).

      Even in the case of fermented soy foods and their higher concentration of isoflavones like genistein, however, the potential cancer-related benefits of soy are complicated by other real-life factors. For example, the lifecycle and metabolic status of an individual seems to make a potentially important difference in the anticancer benefits of soy (even fermented soy). In studies on soy intake and breast cancer involving women who are pre-menopausal and develop tumors that are neither estrogen receptor positive nor progesterone receptor positive, soy and genistein intake (even from fermented soy foods) does not appear to offer risk reduction. Overall dietary intake may also make an important difference in the anticancer benefits of soy. For example, without strong dietary intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, even fermented soy foods may not provide reliable anticancer benefits.

      In several studies, large doses of purified soy isoflavones (obtained through dietary supplements) has been associated with increased risk of certain cancers, including breast cancer. This evidence should not be surprising. Under certain metabolic circumstances, most antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor compounds can also act in a way that is pro-oxidant, pro-inflammatory, and pro-tumor (often called a "proliferative" effect that is promoting of tumor growth). We view intake of tofu (especially fermented tofu) as very different from intake of highly processed forms of soy, or intake of dietary supplements containing purified soy components. And our recommendations to you based on all of this information are as follows:

      First, if you have a family history of hormone-related cancers like breast cancer or prostate cancer, we recommend that you consult with your healthcare provider before consuming very large amounts of soy in your diet (for example, 3 or more servings per day). This recommendation holds true for both non-fermented and fermented soy foods. And while this recommendation is a conservative one on our part, we believe that it's justified based on the current level of controversy in the health research on soy.

      Second, we recommend that you choose whole food soybeans whenever possible, rather than highly processed versions like soy protein isolates and soy protein concentrates. Especially good choices in this context would be whole food-type soy products that have also been fermented, like fermented tofu. In general, it's worth remembering that fermented soy foods have a better track record in cancer prevention than non-fermented soy products.

      Other Areas of Potential Health Benefit

      There are several other areas of potential health benefit from tofu that we believe deserve special mention. First is prevention and treatment of obesity. In this context, it is some of the unique peptides (protein breakdown products) in soy that have been associated with obesity prevention and treatment. Some of these peptides have shown the ability to decrease synthesis of SREBPs (sterol regulatory element binding proteins), thereby helping decrease synthesis of certain fatty acids as well as the depositing of these fatty acids in fat cells. Since fermented soy foods like fermented tofu have increased concentrations of bioactive peptides (versus non-fermented soy foods), fermented tofu may turn out to be premier forms of soy with respect to obesity management. However, it's important to remember that this fascinating research on soy and obesity is still in a very early stage.

      A second area of potential health benefit is prevention of type 2 diabetes. In multiple animal studies, soy foods have been shown to lessen insulin resistance by increasing the synthesis of insulin receptors. However, this increased formation of insulin receptors only appears to occur in the presence of other dietary circumstances, like a moderate amount of polyunsaturated fat intake. High levels of total soy intake (approximately 200 grams per day) have also been associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes, but only in Asian populations thus far. We have yet to see specific studies on tofu in this regard, but we look forward to more research in this area.

      Other areas of active research on soy and health include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), periodontal disease, and neurodegenerative disease. While we have yet to see studies on tofu in these areas, we expect to learn more about potential benefits of tofu in these areas.

      Description

      Originating in China well over a thousand years ago, tofu is made by curdling soymilk so that soymilk proteins become coagulated. The resulting soy curds can then pressed into a sliceable cake. "Nigari" tofu typically refers to soymilk that has been coagulated with the addition of magnesium chloride. Gypsum (calcium sulfate) is another coagulant that is widely used to curdle soymilk. Both calcium sulfate and magnesium chloride are also referred to as "salt" coagulants. ("Salt" in this case doesn't mean table salt, i.e., sodium chloride. Salt is used in this context in a chemical way to refer to any ionic compound.) "Acid" coagulants like glucono delta-lactone (GDL) are also used to coagulate tofu in a way that produces a softer version of this soy food, often referred to as "silken" tofu. Because tofu is "curded" soymilk, tofu is also often called "bean curd." In Chinese, tofu would more accurately be spelled "doufu." Today there are over 200,000 manufacturers of tofu worldwide.

      The vast majority of tofu sold in the United States has not been fermented. However, many forms of fermented tofu are widely enjoyed worldwide. You will read and hear about fermented tofu being described using a seemingly endless list of terms, including: pickled tofu, preserved tofu, tofu cheese, Chinese cheese, sufu, sufu cheese, stinky curd, stinky tofu, and stinky sufu. All of these terms refer to tofu that has been fermented. Fermentation of tofu can take place using a variety of methods, including the addition of bacteria and molds as well as special brines.

      There's little question in the research about the added health benefits that can come from fermentation of tofu. To understand these health benefits, however, it can be helpful to think not only about fermentation of tofu, but about fermentation of foods in general.

      Fermentation of Soy and Other Foods

      Fermentation of food typically involves the breakdown of a food's carbohydrates into gasses, alcohols, and other molecules by micro-organisms. These micro-organisms include molds, yeasts, and bacteria. Common examples of fermented food include beer and wine, cider, leavened bread, yogurt, and sauerkraut. Interestingly, a relatively small number of micro-organisms account for a very large percent of commercially fermented foods, and an even smaller number account for most fermented soy foods. Fermented soy foods (including fermented tofu) usually involve the activity of the molds Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Mucor, Actinomucor and Neurospora; several species of the yeast Saccharomycces; and numerous species of the bacteria Bacillus and Pediococcus.

      While fermentation is usually defined in terms of the action of micro-organisms on a food's carbohydrates, many nutrients in food can be transformed during the process of fermentation. These nutrients can include the food's proteins, fats. vitamins, minerals, and phytonutrients. In fermented soy foods, for example, proteins are often made more digestible through fermentation. Minerals like calcium in soy foods can become more soluble and bioavailable through fermentation as can the bioavailability of many phytonutrients, including isoflavones like genistein and daidzein. In some cases, when fermentation changes the digestibility of protein in soy foods (and in other foods as well), smaller protein fragments are created (called peptides) that have unique health supportive properties of their own. For example, one of the important storage proteins in soybeans is called conglycinin. Conglycinin and its fellow storage protein, glycinin, account for as much as 80% of the total proteins in soybeans. During the process of fermentation, conglycinin in soy is often broken down into smaller peptides that serve as antioxidants, boost immune function, and prevent excessive inflammatory response.

      In the overall picture, we believe that non-fermented soy foods like non-fermented tofu (or a non-fermented fresh green soybean food like edamame) can provide you with important health benefits. (To learn more about these overall soy benefits, please refer to our food profile for Soybeans.) We believe that these whole food-based forms of soy stand in clear distinction to highly processed versions of soy like soy protein concentrate or soy protein isolate. So we recommend that you consider adding any whole-food form of soy to your diet. At the same time, we also believe that the research support for the health benefits of soy foods is even stronger for fermented versus non-fermented soy foods. So we also encourage you to consider inclusion of fermented soy food—such as fermented tofu—among your whole soy choices.

      History

      Along with miso, tofu was a favored food as early as the 12th century AD in Japan, regularly enjoyed by military rulers (Shoguns) and at Zen Buddhist temples throughout the country. In fact, tofu became one of the primary ingredients in "Zen Temple Cookery" (Shojin Ryori) during this time period. Tofu provided a common bond of sorts between common persons, monks, and other officials whose lives were more closely connected with the world of and monasteries. To this day, tofu is viewed as a common food that is both nourishing and inexpensive and can be enjoyed by all.

      How to Select and Store

      Tofu is available refrigerated in individual packages or in bulk, or non-refrigerated in aseptically sealed containers. Packaged tofu should feature expiration dates, which you can use as a guideline for how long of a shelf life it will have. Tofu varies in texture from soft to firm to extra-firm. Soft tofu has a smoother texture and is therefore better suited for salad dressings, sauces, and desserts. Firm and extra-firm tofu are best for baking, stir-frying, and grilling.

      While aseptically packaged tofu need not be refrigerated until it is opened, all other forms of tofu should be refrigerated in their container. Once their packages are open, all types should be rinsed well, kept in a container covered with water, and placed in the refrigerator. Changing the water daily will help keep the tofu fresh for up to one week.

      Tofu can also be frozen in its original packaging and will keep this way for up to five months. This process will actually alter its texture and color, making it more spongy and absorbent, and more yellowish in color. This change in physical properties is actually very suitable for certain recipe preparations.

      If you are selecting tofu on the basis of fat content, the firmer tofus are usually the highest in fat, and the softest tofus, often called silky or silken, are the lowest.

      If you are looking for tofu with higher calcium content, look for products that specifically say "calcium-precipitated" on the label or that include calcium sulfate in their ingredient list. This method of tofu manufacturing uses calcium to help coagulate the soy milk. You'll also sometimes find the word "gypsum" being used to describe tofu coagulants, and this word refers to calcium sulfate as well.

      If you are looking for tofu with higher magnesium content, look for products that say "nigari tofu" or "prepared from nigari flakes" on the label. In this context, "nigari" usually refers to a magnesium chloride coagulant that has been used to curdle the soymilk.

      Finally, if you are looking for a tofu that is more easily digested and more likely to contain nutrients in forms that are better absorbed, look for fermented tofu. As described earlier, you will find a wide variety of terms being used to describe fermented tofu, including pickled tofu, preserved tofu, tofu cheese, Chinese cheese, sufu, sufu cheese, stinky curd, stinky tofu, and stinky sufu.

      Tips for Preparing and Cooking

      If you would decide that you would like to have your tofu available at a later date, or if you decide that you would like to remove some of the moisture from your tofu to help it soak in sauces and flavors, you can freeze it. Freezing tofu is also called "pressing" it. First, take the tofu out of its package and place it on a cutting board to allow the packaging fluids to drain off. This step will help keep too much ice from forming around your tofu when you freeze it.

      Next, place the tofu on some paper towels, and cover the top of the tofu with some paper towels as well. Then find some slightly heavy object (like a small book) that can be placed on the tofu's top paper towel layer. The goal here is to find an object that is heavy enough to press down on the tofu and cause its fluid to be pushed out without actually crushing or collapsing the tofu. Leave the object on top of the tofu for 15 minutes.

      After 15 minutes, remove the object and all paper towels from the tofu, and place the drained tofu in a freezer bag. Make sure you run your hand over the tofu and bag to remove all the air pockets before sealing the bag. Then just place it in the freezer.

      Your tofu should be fine for at least 2-3 months when frozen in this way. When you are ready to use it, just remove and thaw. Some tofus will change color slightly after being frozen (usually to a slightly more yellowish color) and most will also have a slightly different texture (usually a little more "chewy").

      How to Enjoy

      For some of our favorite recipes, click Recipes.

      A Few Quick Serving Ideas for Tofu

      • Blend together soft tofu, olive oil, garlic and lemon juice to make a tofu aoli dip.
      • Scramble soft tofu together with your favorite vegetables and the spice turmeric to give it a yellow "egg-like" coloring. This delicious dish can be served as is or can be used as the basis for "tofu rancheros" by being wrapped in a tortilla and served with black beans and salsa.
      • Healthy Stir-Fry firm tofu with your favorite vegetables and seasonings.
      • Blend soft tofu with your favorite fruits (and honey or other natural sweeteners to taste) in a blender or food processor and serve for breakfast or dessert.
      • Add cubes of tofu to miso soup.

      Individual Concerns

      Tofu and Food Allergies

      Soybeans and the foods made from them, including tofu, are among the eight food types considered to be major food allergens in the U.S., requiring identification on food labels. For helpful information about this topic, please see our article, An Overview of Adverse Food Reactions

      Tofu and Thyroid Health

      Along with the increasing presence of soy foods (such as tofu) in grocery stores and on restaurant menus has come increasing controversy over soybeans and thyroid health. We're not surprised to find strong conflicting opinions in this area because scientific research on thyroid and soy is both complicated and inconclusive. We have written an extensive review of what we know—and what we don't know—about this important issue at this point. You find the article Soy Food and Thyroid Health here.

      Genetically Modified Soybeans

      Conventionally grown soybeans&mash;from which conventional tofu is made—is one of the foods that is often grown from genetically modified seeds. For helpful information about genetically modified foods—including our WHFoods Recommendations—please see our article, What Is Your Approach to Genetically Modified Foods?

      Nutritional Profile

      A wide range of unique proteins, peptides, and phytonutrients contained in soy foods, including tofu. Examples are flavonoids and isoflavonoids (daidzein,genistein, malonylgenistin and malonyldaidzin); phenolic acids (caffeic, coumaric, ferulic, gallic and sinapic acids); phytoalexins (glyceollin I, glyceollin II and glyceollin III); phytosterols (beta-sitosterol, beta-stigmasterol, campestrol); unique proteins and peptides (defensins, glycinin, conglycinin, and lunacin); and saponins (soyasaponins from group A and group B, and soyasapogenols).

      Tofu is an excellent source of calcium and a very good source of manganese, copper, selenium, protein and phosphorus. In addition, tofu is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids, iron, magnesium, zinc and vitamin B1.

      Introduction to Food Rating System Chart

      In order to better help you identify foods that feature a high concentration of nutrients for the calories they contain, we created a Food Rating System. This system allows us to highlight the foods that are especially rich in particular nutrients. The following chart shows the nutrients for which this food is either an excellent, very good, or good source (below the chart you will find a table that explains these qualifications). If a nutrient is not listed in the chart, it does not necessarily mean that the food doesn't contain it. It simply means that the nutrient is not provided in a sufficient amount or concentration to meet our rating criteria. (To view this food's in-depth nutritional profile that includes values for dozens of nutrients - not just the ones rated as excellent, very good, or good - please use the link below the chart.) To read this chart accurately, you'll need to glance up in the top left corner where you will find the name of the food and the serving size we used to calculate the food's nutrient composition. This serving size will tell you how much of the food you need to eat to obtain the amount of nutrients found in the chart. Now, returning to the chart itself, you can look next to the nutrient name in order to find the nutrient amount it offers, the percent Daily Value (DV%) that this amount represents, the nutrient density that we calculated for this food and nutrient, and the rating we established in our rating system. For most of our nutrient ratings, we adopted the government standards for food labeling that are found in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's "Reference Values for Nutrition Labeling." Read more background information and details of our rating system.

      Tofu, firm
      4.00 oz
      113.40 grams
      Calories: 164
      GI: very low
      NutrientAmountDRI/DV
      (%)
      Nutrient
      Density
      World's Healthiest
      Foods Rating
      calcium774.51 mg778.5excellent
      manganese1.34 mg677.3very good
      copper0.43 mg485.2very good
      selenium19.73 mcg363.9very good
      protein17.89 g363.9very good
      phosphorus215.46 mg313.4very good
      omega-3 fats0.66 g283.0good
      iron3.02 mg171.8good
      magnesium65.77 mg161.8good
      zinc1.78 mg161.8good
      vitamin B10.18 mg151.6good
      World's Healthiest
      Foods Rating
      Rule
      excellent DRI/DV>=75% OR
      Density>=7.6 AND DRI/DV>=10%
      very good DRI/DV>=50% OR
      Density>=3.4 AND DRI/DV>=5%
      good DRI/DV>=25% OR
      Density>=1.5 AND DRI/DV>=2.5%

      In-Depth Nutritional Profile

      In addition to the nutrients highlighted in our ratings chart, here is an in-depth nutritional profile for Tofu. This profile includes information on a full array of nutrients, including carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fiber, sodium, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids and more.

      Tofu, firm
      (Note: "--" indicates data unavailable)
      4.00 oz
      (113.40 g)
      GI: very low
      BASIC MACRONUTRIENTS AND CALORIES
      nutrientamountDRI/DV
      (%)
      Protein17.89 g36
      Carbohydrates4.84 g2
      Fat - total9.89 g--
      Dietary Fiber2.61 g10
      Calories164.439
      MACRONUTRIENT AND CALORIE DETAIL
      nutrientamountDRI/DV
      (%)
      Carbohydrate:
      Starch-- g
      Total Sugars-- g
      Monosaccharides-- g
      Fructose-- g
      Glucose-- g
      Galactose-- g
      Disaccharides-- g
      Lactose-- g
      Maltose-- g
      Sucrose-- g
      Soluble Fiber1.25 g
      Insoluble Fiber1.36 g
      Other Carbohydrates-- g
      Fat:
      Monounsaturated Fat2.18 g
      Polyunsaturated Fat5.58 g
      Saturated Fat1.43 g
      Trans Fat-- g
      Calories from Fat88.99
      Calories from Saturated Fat12.87
      Calories from Trans Fat--
      Cholesterol0.00 mg
      Water79.19 g
      MICRONUTRIENTS
      nutrientamountDRI/DV
      (%)
      Vitamins
      Water-Soluble Vitamins
      B-Complex Vitamins
      Vitamin B10.18 mg15
      Vitamin B20.12 mg9
      Vitamin B30.43 mg3
      Vitamin B3 (Niacin Equivalents)5.08 mg
      Vitamin B60.10 mg6
      Vitamin B120.00 mcg0
      Biotin-- mcg--
      Choline-- mg--
      Folate32.89 mcg8
      Folate (DFE)32.89 mcg
      Folate (food)32.89 mcg
      Pantothenic Acid0.15 mg3
      Vitamin C0.23 mg0
      Fat-Soluble Vitamins
      Vitamin A (Retinoids and Carotenoids)
      Vitamin A International Units (IU)188.24 IU
      Vitamin A mcg Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE)9.41 mcg (RAE)1
      Vitamin A mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)18.82 mcg (RE)
      Retinol mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)0.00 mcg (RE)
      Carotenoid mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)18.82 mcg (RE)
      Alpha-Carotene-- mcg
      Beta-Carotene-- mcg
      Beta-Carotene Equivalents112.94 mcg
      Cryptoxanthin-- mcg
      Lutein and Zeaxanthin-- mcg
      Lycopene-- mcg
      Vitamin D
      Vitamin D International Units (IU)0.00 IU0
      Vitamin D mcg0.00 mcg
      Vitamin E
      Vitamin E mg Alpha-Tocopherol Equivalents (ATE)-- mg (ATE)--
      Vitamin E International Units (IU)-- IU
      Vitamin E mg-- mg
      Vitamin K-- mcg--
      Minerals
      nutrientamountDRI/DV
      (%)
      Boron-- mcg
      Calcium774.51 mg77
      Chloride-- mg
      Chromium-- mcg--
      Copper0.43 mg48
      Fluoride-- mg--
      Iodine-- mcg--
      Iron3.02 mg17
      Magnesium65.77 mg16
      Manganese1.34 mg67
      Molybdenum-- mcg--
      Phosphorus215.46 mg31
      Potassium268.75 mg8
      Selenium19.73 mcg36
      Sodium15.88 mg1
      Zinc1.78 mg16
      INDIVIDUAL FATTY ACIDS
      nutrientamountDRI/DV
      (%)
      Omega-3 Fatty Acids0.66 g28
      Omega-6 Fatty Acids4.92 g
      Monounsaturated Fats
      14:1 Myristoleic0.00 g
      15:1 Pentadecenoic0.00 g
      16:1 Palmitol0.03 g
      17:1 Heptadecenoic0.00 g
      18:1 Oleic2.16 g
      20:1 Eicosenoic0.00 g
      22:1 Erucic0.00 g
      24:1 Nervonic0.00 g
      Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
      18:2 Linoleic4.92 g
      18:2 Conjugated Linoleic (CLA)-- g
      18:3 Linolenic0.66 g
      18:4 Stearidonic0.00 g
      20:3 Eicosatrienoic0.00 g
      20:4 Arachidonic0.00 g
      20:5 Eicosapentaenoic (EPA)0.00 g
      22:5 Docosapentaenoic (DPA)0.00 g
      22:6 Docosahexaenoic (DHA)0.00 g
      Saturated Fatty Acids
      4:0 Butyric-- g
      6:0 Caproic-- g
      8:0 Caprylic-- g
      10:0 Capric-- g
      12:0 Lauric-- g
      14:0 Myristic0.03 g
      15:0 Pentadecanoic-- g
      16:0 Palmitic1.05 g
      17:0 Margaric-- g
      18:0 Stearic0.35 g
      20:0 Arachidic-- g
      22:0 Behenate-- g
      24:0 Lignoceric-- g
      INDIVIDUAL AMINO ACIDS
      nutrientamountDRI/DV
      (%)
      Alanine0.73 g
      Arginine1.19 g
      Aspartic Acid1.98 g
      Cysteine0.25 g
      Glutamic Acid3.09 g
      Glycine0.70 g
      Histidine0.52 g
      Isoleucine0.89 g
      Leucine1.36 g
      Lysine1.18 g
      Methionine0.23 g
      Phenylalanine0.87 g
      Proline0.97 g
      Serine0.84 g
      Threonine0.73 g
      Tryptophan0.28 g
      Tyrosine0.60 g
      Valine0.90 g
      OTHER COMPONENTS
      nutrientamountDRI/DV
      (%)
      Ash1.59 g
      Organic Acids (Total)-- g
      Acetic Acid-- g
      Citric Acid-- g
      Lactic Acid-- g
      Malic Acid-- g
      Taurine-- g
      Sugar Alcohols (Total)-- g
      Glycerol-- g
      Inositol-- g
      Mannitol-- g
      Sorbitol-- g
      Xylitol-- g
      Artificial Sweeteners (Total)-- mg
      Aspartame-- mg
      Saccharin-- mg
      Alcohol0.00 g
      Caffeine0.00 mg

      Note:

      The nutrient profiles provided in this website are derived from The Food Processor, Version 10.12.0, ESHA Research, Salem, Oregon, USA. Among the 50,000+ food items in the master database and 163 nutritional components per item, specific nutrient values were frequently missing from any particular food item. We chose the designation "--" to represent those nutrients for which no value was included in this version of the database.

      References

      • Amadou I, Yong-Hui S, Sun J et al. Fermented Soybean Products: Some Methods, Antioxidants Compound Extraction and their Scavenging Activity. Asian Journal of Biochemistry Year: 2009 Vol: 4 Issue: 3 Pages/record No.: 68-76. 2009.
      • Hang M and Zhao XH. Fermentation Time and Extraction Solvents Influenced in vitro Antioxidant Property of Soluble Extracts of Mao-tofu Fermented with Mucor sp. Biotechnology. 2011;10(1): 60-69 . 2011.
      • Hara A, Sasazuki S, Inoue M et al. Isoflavone intake and risk of gastric cancer: a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Am J Clin Nutr January 2012, vol. 95, no. 1, pages 147-154. 2012.
      • Hidayat M, Sujatno M, Sutadipura N et al. Conglycinin Content Obtained from Two Soybean Varieties Using Different Preparation and Extraction Methods. Hayati Journal of Biosciences. 2011;18(1): 37-42 . 2011.
      • Ikeda Y, Iki M, Morita A et al. Intake of fermented soybeans, natto, is associated with reduced bone loss in postmenopausal women: Japanese Population-Based Osteoporosis (JPOS) Study. J Nutr. 2006 May;136(5):1323-8. 2006.
      • Oboh G. Coagulants Modulate the Antioxidant Properties and Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Tofu (Curdled Soymilk). Asian Journal of Biochemistry Year: 2006 Vol: 1 Issue: 1 Pages/record No.: 57-66. 2006.
      • Ollberding NJ, Lim U, Wilkens LR et al. Legume, Soy, Tofu, and Isoflavone Intake and Endometrial Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst (2011) doi: 10.1093/jnci/djr475. First published online: December 12, 2011. 2011.
      • Pan HC, Yang DY, Ho SP et al. Escalated regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury by the combined therapy of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and fermented soybean extracts, Natto. Journal of Biomedical Science 2009, 16:75 (23 August 2009). 2009.
      • Soyinfo Center. A comprehensive history of soy. Online resource location: www.soyinfocenter.com. 2012; Lafayette, CA, USA. 2012.
      • Stanojevic SP, Barac MB, Pesic MB et al. Protein composition in tofu of corrected quality. Acta Periodica Technologica Year: 2010 Vol: 2010 Issue: 41 Pages/record No.: 77-86. 2010.
      • Tong X, Li W and Qin LQ. [Meta-analysis of the relationship between soybean product consumption and gastric cancer]. [Article in Chinese]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010 Mar;44(3):215-20. 2010.
      • Zhang W, Tang FY, Yeo MC et al. . Fermentation of group B soyasaponins with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Journal of Food Biochemistry, published online, 12 December 2011: doi: 10.1111/j.1745-4514.2010.00524. 2011.

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